From the ABC:
Federal Cabinet has approved the introduction of a smart card for all people who use Government health and welfare services.
The card will include a photograph and personal details, and will be used to access Medicare rebates and family benefits. […]
Announcing the decision, Prime Minister John Howard says the Government has decided not to continue with a proposal for a national identity card for all Australians.
So if you want to be able to claim your Medicare for going to see the doctor, you will have to have one of these cards…